Why Subordinate States Quest for Autonomy? Explaining the Crisis in Turkish-American Relations during the 1964-1975 Period

Following World War II, Turkey was keen on being a part of the emerging US-led order. By ceding foreign policy autonomy to Washington, Ankara became one of the United States' most loyal allies until the mid-1960s. However, the first crisis in Turkish-American relations began in 1964 and culminated in the closure of US bases and facilities in Turkey in 1975. Despite escalating tensions, Turkey remained as a member of the US-led system, limited its challenge to the US to a demand for more autonomy. In this context, this study aims to identify the causes of Turkey's quest for autonomy within the US-led system from 1964 to 1975 by applying the concepts and arguments of the hierarchy theory, which is relatively new in the field of international relations.


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